Low job control refers to work in which workers have little or no control over what happens in their work environment, how or when their work is done, or the objectives they work towards.
What is low job control?
Low job control can include work where there is excessive monitoring of work tasks or breaks, unpredictable work hours, precarious employment contracts (e.g. casual, labour hire or rolling term contracts) and work where workers have little or no involvement in decisions that affect them and their work.
What are the risks?
Low job control can cause a stress response which when frequent, prolonged or severe may cause physical or psychological injury to a worker.
Low job control may exist in isolation as a hazard, however often will occur alongside other psychosocial hazards at work and combine to increase the risk of harm (e.g. workers who are in insecure or precarious employment may be at greater risk if they also lack support from their peers or supervisor, or are experiencing excessive job demands).
Like all work health and safety risks, low job control must be managed.
How do I manage the risks?
Everyone at work has a responsibility for health and safety, both physical and psychological.
As a worker, you must take reasonable care of your own health and safety in your place of work, and the health and safety of others who may be affected by your actions. You must also follow any reasonable instructions given by the person who conducts a business or undertaking (PCBU).
As a person conducting a business or undertaking (PCBU), you have a primary duty of care to ensure the health and safety of your workers and others in your place of work. You must provide and maintain, so far as is reasonably practicable, a safe and healthy working environment. You must also talk with your workers (and with other PCBUs when required) about health and safety issues.
Following a four-step risk management process will help your business meet its responsibilities under work health and safety (WHS) laws.
The first step is to identify low job control hazards in your place of work. This means looking at everything from the work environment to work tasks, how they’re carried out, and the way work is designed and managed.
Typical situations that may lead to low job control include:
- work that is tightly managed and controlled (e.g. machine or computer paced, scripted call centres with set breaks and rostering, work that requires permission before progressing with routine tasks)
- lack of formal and/or informal opportunities to learn and develop new skills
- where workers have little say in the way they do their work (e.g. when they can take a break from certain tasks or change tasks)
- excessive monitoring and scrutiny of low-level tasks
Sometimes, a worker may avoid reporting concerns because:
- it’s thought to be ‘part of the job’ and nothing can be done about it
- the worker believes that only ‘serious incidents or issues’ are to be reported
- there’s a belief that nothing will happen if they report
- the worker believes they will be blamed for not being able to handle the job
- the reporting process is time-consuming and complex
- the workplace culture encourages “just getting on with it”.
To determine if low job control is a potential hazard in your place of work:
- talk with health and safety representatives, health and safety committees and workers
- walk through and inspect your place of work
- review workers’ compensation claims
- refer to industry standards and guidelines
- review the hazard and incident reports, exit reports and complaints.
A risk assessment involves thinking about what could happen if someone is exposed to a hazard (the consequence of exposure) and the likelihood of it happening.
Psychosocial hazards may interact or combine to increase the overall psychosocial risk so need to be considered together.
A risk assessment can help you figure out:
- the severity of a risk
- whether any effective control measures are in place
- what actions you can take to control this risk
- how quickly you should act.
To determine the likelihood that someone will be harmed by low job control, ask yourself:
- has it happened before, either in this place of work or somewhere else?
- if it has happened, how often does it happen?
To determine the possible consequences, ask yourself:
- will it cause minor or serious injury, or death?
After the risks have been identified and assessed, you'll need to control them. Risk control measures should be selected based on highest protection and most reliability.
- Eliminating the risk
The most effective control measure is to eliminate the hazard and associated risk, for example where reasonably practicable, avoid insecure, precarious and contingent work arrangements (e.g. move long-term casual workers to permanent contracts, consult and provide advance notice of work arrangements).
- Minimising the risk
If it’s not reasonably practicable to eliminate the hazard, the risk should be minimised by using a range of control measures, for example consult workers when determining goals, objectives, work hours, performance indicators, work requirements and deadlines. Facilitate discussion and input into what work tasks need to be achieved and how. Involve workers in decision-making processes and encourage suggestions for continuously improving work practices (e.g. in performance reviews, team meetings etc.).
- Using administrative controls
You must also use administrative controls if there is still a risk after you’ve tried to reduce it with other control measures. Administrative controls protect your workers by working in ways that reduce their exposure to a hazard, for example implement processes that allow workers to have some control over their workflow, customer queues, and task intake etc. Ensure systems are in place to provide adequate training to managers on strategies that empower workers rather than micro-managing.
You may need to use a combination of these control measures to meet your responsibilities under WHS laws. Refer to the Managing the risk of psychosocial hazards at work Code of Practice 2022 for more information.
Risk management should be an ongoing process in your business, and you should review your control measures regularly. Don’t wait until something goes wrong.
In some situations, WHS legislation requires you to review controls.
- when the control measure is not effective in controlling the risk
- before a change that might give rise to a new risk
- when you identify a new hazard or risk
- when consultation with workers indicates a review is needed
- when the dynamic and complexity of your business changes, for a new supervisor or worker
- after a health and safety representative requests a review.
A review of risk control measures should be undertaken after incidents or complaints involving low job control.
A review of risk control measures can include an examination of:
- the physical work environment
- work systems and procedures
- worker training and information
- the consultation processes in your place of work.
The committee was established to ensure there is an ongoing consultative forum for injured workers and families affected by a workplace death, illness or serious incident. Read more about the committee.
Legislation and Codes of practice
You should read through the relevant legislation and codes of practice carefully to make sure your business is complying with the health and safety duties in the WHS Act.
- Work Health and Safety Act 2011
- Work Health and Safety Regulation 2011
- Managing the risk of psychosocial hazards at work Code of Practice 2022
A range of laws deal with mental health issues in Queensland workplaces.
- The Queensland Human Rights Commission provides information about Queensland’s anti-discrimination and human rights laws, including sexual harassment at work.
- The Queensland Industrial Relations Commission helps to resolve disputes about workplace bullying for Queensland public sector employees.
- The Fair Work Commission helps to resolve disputes about workplace bullying and sexual harassment for most private sector employees.
- The Fair Work Ombudsman helps employers and employees understand their workplace rights and responsibilities.
- WorkCover Queensland provides workers’ compensation insurance and information about how to make a workers’ compensation claim.
You may wish to contact an organisation listed below for further information or support.
If your life is in danger, call emergency services on 000 or go to your local hospital emergency department.
- Mental Health Commission
- Lifeline Australia – 13 11 14
- Mental Health access line – 1300 642 255 a confidential mental health telephone triage service that provides the first point of contact to public mental health services to Queenslanders. Available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week and links callers to the nearest Queensland Public Mental Health service.
- Suicide Call Back Service – 1300 659 467
- Beyond Blue – 1300 22 46 36
- 13 YARN – 13 92 76 for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people
- Heads Up – information and resources on developing a healthy workplaces
- Workers’ Psychological Support Service – assists Queensland workers who have experienced a work-related psychological injury.
- Injury Prevention and Management Program – IPaM is a joint initiative delivered by WHSQ and WorkCover Queensland. It is a free program designed to help Queensland businesses develop and implement sustainable health, safety and injury management systems.