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Occupations heat maps

Occupations heat maps provides a visual  representation of relative risk across occupations. The heat maps are based on  the concept of the harm index which is a ratio of total statutory costs (an  indicator of severity) and exposure (i.e. workers covered) within a given  cohort to give an assessment of risk, which represents the relative harm  workers are likely to sustain during their working lives.

Occupational heat maps were generated using  on-duty at place of work finalised workers' compensation claims only. The heat maps  were produced using the following conditions:

  • All on-duty claims, excluding on-duty road traffic incidents (Appendix 1)
  • Serious on-duty at place of work claims (five or more days off work, excluding on-duty  road traffic incidents) (Appendix 2)
  • On-duty road traffic incidents only (Appendix 3).

The reports highlight occupations as:

  • green (low harm) where index values are at or below the all occupation average
  • orange (medium harm) occupations above and up to twice the average
  • red (high harm) occupations with index values at more than twice the average.

All results in these heat maps have been calculated  using a consistent methodology in 2020 for comparative purposes and therefore  index values and colours may not be the same as in previously published  reports.

Results

Harm index analysis for on-duty at place of work claims revealed the occupation groups with the highest index level occupations were:

  • Labourers
  • Machinery operators and drivers
  • Technicians and trades workers
  • Community and personal services workers

These four occupation groups represent half of the eight categories, yet their claim numbers account for 79 per cent of all in scope claims. It is a similar result for statutory payments, with these four occupation groups accounting for 80 per cent of the total. Further, the first three groups were responsible for approximately two thirds of all claims and statutory payments.

Despite this, not all occupation groups were deemed high harm overall (Table 1). Only the Labourers and Machinery operators and drivers occupation groups were high harm in 2016. This is generally because there are fewer high harm occupations in the Technicians and trades workers and Community and personal services workers groups (Table 2).

Table 1: Occupation groups with high harm occupations, 2016

Occupation group Harm index value1 Number of claims Proportion of all claims (%)2

Labourers

295

20,334

32

Machinery operators and drivers

235

8,384

13

Technicians and trades workers

141

12,972

21

Community and personal services workers

96

8,592

14

Total (all claims)

100

63,255

100

1 Calculated using ANZSCO 3-digit results.

2 There are rounding errors in this table.

Overall there were 14 occupations that were deemed high risk in 2016 (Table 2), having a harm index that is at least twice that for all occupations. Workers in these occupations experienced the greatest harm in 2016. (Detailed results in Appendix 1.)

Table 2: High harm occupations, 2016

Occupation      ANZSCO 3-digit code      Occupation group      Harm Index value      Number of claims      

Miscellaneous labourers

899

Labourers

1,319

9,295

Miscellaneous factory process workers

839

Labourers

486

1,747

Construction and mining labourers

821

Labourers

410

2,721

Bricklayers, and carpenters and joiners

331

Technicians and trades workers

339

1,475

Truck drivers

733

Machinery operators and drivers

314

2,000

Fabrication engineering trades workers

322

Technicians and trades workers

304

2,074

Stationary plant operators

712

Machinery operators and drivers

278

1,204

Mobile plant operators

721

Machinery operators and drivers

267

1,590

Food process workers

831

Labourers

244

1,610

Glaziers, plasterers and tilers

333

Technicians and trades workers

243

597

Defence force members, fire fighters and police

441

Community and personal services workers

236

1,345

Miscellaneous technicians and trades workers

399

Technicians and trades workers

214

614

Delivery drivers

732

Machinery operators and drivers

203

496

Storepersons

741

Machinery operators and drivers

201

2,166

The top ten improvements in harm index over the five-year period to 2016, are outlined in Table 3.

Improvements refer to relative improvements over time, so theoretically if all occupations except one were worse in 2016, the exception would show an improvement even if numbers of claims and statutory payments remained the same. Occupations which were deemed either medium or high harm and had at least 5003 claims in 2011 were included in the analysis.

All improvements in Table 3 belong to the top four high harm occupation groups, except for Checkout operators and office cashiers. Results for this occupation are anomalous and likely due to coding or classification changes in workers’ compensation data between the two Census years.

Only four of the ten occupations in Table 3 were deemed high harm in 2011. Claim numbers for this group of ten occupations accounted for 11 per cent of all claims in 2016.

Table 3: Top ten improvements in harm index, 2016

OccupationANZSCO 3-digit codeHarm index value 2016Harm index value 2011Number of claims 2016Number of claims 2011Harm index point change

Automobile, bus and rail drivers

731

104

306

458

707

-202

Food process workers

831

244

383

1,610

2,979

-139

Checkout operators and office cashiers

631

24

104

175

1,594

-80

Machine operators

711

113

176

469

886

-63

Health and welfare support workers

411

181

235

1,437

1647

-55

Plumbers

334

131

168

544

682

-37

Prison and security Officers

442

185

215

573

639

-30

Horticultural trades workers

362

138

163

575

889

-25

Animal attendants and trainers, and shearers

361

116

136

249

243

-20

Farm, forestry and Garden workers

841

150

169

1,135

1,159

-19

3 This represents less than one per cent of claims.

The ten worst performers over the period are revealed in Table 4. Performance is relative over time, so similarly, if all occupations except one improved in 2016, the exception would show worse results even if their numbers of claims and statutory payments remained the same. Occupations which were deemed either medium or high harm with at least 500 claims in 2011 were included in the analysis.

All occupations in Table 4 belong to the top four high harm occupation groups. The only occupation in the table that was not deemed high harm in 2016 (and does not appear in Table 2) was Electricians. In 2011 the Harm Index for Electricians was 16 index points higher than the all occupation average and in 2016, they were deemed medium harm again with 1.43 times the all occupation average harm index (or 43 index points higher).

Claim numbers for this group of ten occupations in Table 4 accounted for more than a third of all claims in 2016, at 36 per cent.

Table 4: Top ten deteriorations in harm index, 2016

OccupationANZSCO 3-digit codeHarm Index value 2016Harm Index value 2011Number of claims 2016Number of claims 2011Harm index point change

Miscellaneous labourers

899

1,319

745

9,295

8,131

574

Defence force members, fire fighters and police

441

236

149

1345

1,284

87

Construction and mining labourers

821

410

330

2,721

3,303

80

Truck drivers

733

314

254

2,000

2,365

60

Miscellaneous technicians and trades workers

399

214

158

614

582

56

Mobile plant operators

721

267

213

1,590

2,002

54

Stationary plant operators

712

278

226

1,204

1,880

52

Fabrication engineering trades workers

322

304

259

2,074

3,629

45

Electricians

341

143

116

1,030

1,342

27

Glaziers, plasterers and tilers

333

243

218

597

629

25

Labourers
Labourers recorded the highest average index value of 295 (or 2.95 times the all occupation average), while also holding the largest number of claims (32 per cent of all claims).

Almost half (44 per cent) of the Labourer occupation group were classified as high-risk occupations. These four occupations are listed in Table 5.

Table 5: Labourer occupations deemed high harm in 2016

OccupationANZSCO 3-digit codeHarm index value 2016Harm index value 2011Number of claims 2016Number of claims 2011

Miscellaneous labourers

899

1,319

745

9295

8,131

Miscellaneous factory process workers

839

486

477

1,747

2,598

Construction and mining labourers

821

410

330

2,721

3,303

Food process workers

831

244

383

1,610

2,979

Miscellaneous labourers was the riskiest occupation overall, both in 2011 and in 2016, with the numbers of claims rising significantly over time as well as relative risk. This occupation also had the most claims of any (9,295 or 15 per cent of all claims in 2016), and three times the number of claims of the next highest occupation (Sales assistants and salespersons with 3,111).

Miscellaneous factory process workers and Construction and mining labourers also experienced an increase in the harm index, however their claim numbers decreased. This could be due to more severe injuries on average or a relatively slower improvement in risk.

Despite being deemed a high-risk occupation, there was improvement in the relative harm of Food process workers. There was a decrease in both the index (from 3.83 times the all occupation average to 2.44 times), and the numbers of claims, which dropped by nearly 46 per cent over the five years to 2016 (from 2,979 to 1,610).

Machinery operators and drivers
The Machinery operators and drivers group recorded the second highest average index value of 235 (or 2.35 times the all occupation average), while also being responsible for many claims (8,384 or 13 per cent of total).

There were five occupations within the group that were deemed high harm in 2016 (Table 6). Accordingly, the heat map revealed that the Machinery operators and drivers group had more than two-thirds of the group shaded red (71 per cent or five of the seven occupations).

All five occupations worsened over the five-year period to 2016, despite a consistent drop in the numbers of claims. This could be due to more severe injuries on average or a relatively slower rate of improvement or a combination of both these factors.

Table 6: Machinery operators and drivers deemed high harm in 2016

OccupationANZSCO 3 digitHarm index value 2016Harm index value 2011Number of claims 2016Number of claims 2011

Truck drivers

733

314

254

2,000

2,365

Stationary plant operators

712

278

226

1,204

1,880

Mobile plant operators

721

267

213

1590

2,002

Delivery drivers

732

203

198

496

516

Store persons

741

201

188

2,166

2,726

Technicians and trades workers
The heat map revealed that on average, the Technicians and trades workers group demonstrated a medium harm index level at 1.41 times the all occupation average. Despite this moderate result, four occupations within this group were deemed high harm (Table 7) and their harm indices have worsened over time.

Two high harm occupations were largely responsible for driving up the average: Bricklayers, and carpenters and joiners (with a harm index of 339 or 3.39 times the all occupation average), and Fabrication engineering trades workers (304). The worst three, including Glaziers, plasterers and tilers (243), have all remained high risk over time.

Conversely, the Miscellaneous technicians and trades workers occupation was the only one of the four high harm occupations in 2016 that was deemed medium harm in 2011. This occupation was also the only one to experience an increase in claims over the five years to 2016 (5.5 per cent).

Table 7: Technicians and trades workers occupations deemed high harm in 2016

OccupationANZSCO 3 digitHarm index value 2016Harm index value 2011Number of claims 2016Number of claims 2011

Bricklayers, and carpenters and joiners

331

339

330

1,475

1,956

Fabrication engineering trades workers

322

304

259

2,074

3,629

Glaziers, plasterers and tilers

333

243

218

597

629

Miscellaneous technicians and trades workers

399

214

158

614

582

The four high harm occupations in Table 7 make up 19 per cent or four of 21 occupations in the Technicians and trades workers group.

Community and personal services workers
The harm index for the Community and personal services workers group was 96 or approximately average for all occupations. There was only one out of nine occupations in this group that was deemed high harm: Defence force members, fire fighters and police (Table 8). This is not a surprising result given the nature of firefighting and police work4.

Other personnel that are exposed to dangerous work, such as corrective services officers and paramedics, are in occupation categories that were assessed as medium risk of harm. For example, Prison and security officers have a harm index of 185, or nearly twice the all occupation average. Health and welfare support workers have a harm index of 180.

The harm index and numbers of claims for fire fighters and police increased by 87 points and 4.8 per cent respectively, over the five years to 2016. This result can only partially be explained by the introduction of deemed diseases legislation, which meant that prescribed occupational cancer claims by firefighters were automatically accepted from 20155.

4 Defence workers are covered by Comcare and therefore not in scope of this analysis.

5 There were approximately 14 additional deemed diseases claims on average in the 2016 results.

Table 8: Community and personal services workers at high risk of harm in 2016

OccupationANZSCO 3 digitHarm index value 2016Harm index value 2011Number of claims 2016Number of claims 2011

Defence force members, fire fighters and police

441

236

149

1,345

1,284

Other occupations
The occupations in the table below are noteworthy despite not being categorised as high harm. This is based on significant index values and numbers of claims. The four occupations in Table 9 make up eight per cent of all claims and have a higher harm index than average.

The Health and welfare support workers occupation was deemed high harm in 2011, but significantly improved in both numbers and severity of claims over the five years to 2016. The Farm, forestry and garden workers occupation made similar improvements over time, though its harm index in 2011 was rated medium (orange). Mechanical engineering trades workers and Electricians had fewer claims in 2016, however the relative risk of severity of harm in these two occupations was higher than in 2011.

Table 9: Other noteworthy results in 2016

OccupationANZSCO 3 digitHarm index value 2016Harm index value 2011Number of claims 2016Number of claims 2011

Health and welfare support workers

411

181

235

1,437

1,647

Farm, forestry and garden workers

841

150

169

1,135

1,159

Mechanical engineering trades workers

323

143

120

1,408

2,152

Electricians

341

143

116

1,030

1,342

Serious on-duty at place of work claims (five or more days off work)
The heat map produced for serious claims (Appendix 2) revealed that high risk occupations were very similar to all finalised claims.

Likewise, the four occupation groups identified in Table 1 were of the highest harm, largely due to a high proportion of occupations in these groups deemed as high risk in 2016 (33 per cent). Examples include Miscellaneous labourers (1088 harm index), Construction and mining labourers (427), and Truck drivers (351). These three occupations also had large numbers of claims in 2016.

Almost all occupations identified as high harm in Table 2, were also assessed as being high harm when analysis was restricted to serious claims. Harm indices and numbers of claims however were different for serious claims, as expected, and are summarised in Table 10.

Miscellaneous technicians and trades workers were not deemed high risk when analysing serious claims. (The harm index for this occupation was 185 or nearly twice that of all occupations in 2016.) Two other occupations were added to the high harm list for serious claims, both from the Community and personal services workers occupation group: Prison and security officers (index value 207), and Health and welfare support workers (204).

Table 10: High harm occupations, serious claims 2016

OccupationANZSCO 3-digit codeOccupation groupHarm Index valueNumber of claims

Miscellaneous labourers

899

Labourers

1,088

3,277

Miscellaneous factory process workers

839

Labourers

493

476

Construction and mining labourers

821

Labourers

427

1,054

Truck drivers

733

Machinery operators and drivers

351

1,137

Bricklayers, and carpenters and joiners

331

Technicians and trades workers

291

591

Fabrication engineering trades workers

322

Technicians and trades workers

287

501

Stationary plant operators

712

Machinery operators and drivers

283

424

Mobile plant operators

721

Machinery operators and drivers

274

675

Glaziers, plasterers and tilers

333

Technicians and trades workers

261

240

Food process workers

831

Labourers

245

571

Defence force members, fire fighters and police

441

Community and personal services workers

221

407

Delivery drivers

732

Machinery operators and drivers

220

257

Storepersons

741

Machinery operators and drivers

214

763

Prison and security officers

442

Community and personal services workers

207

281

Health and welfare and support workers

411

Community and personal services workers

204

711

It is interesting to note that, while serious claims represent 38 per cent of all finalised on-duty at place of work claims for all occupations, this percentage drops to 33 per cent for Technicians and trades workers’ claims. The highest conversion rates of claims were 44 per cent and 43 per cent respectively for Community and personal services workers and Machinery operators and drivers. Labourers’ proportion of serious claims was 38 per cent.

On-duty road traffic incidents
A version of the heat map was created to investigate injuries caused by on-duty road traffic incidents (Appendix 3). These types of claims averaged only 846 in total (or approximately one per cent of all claims) over the 2016 Census period so the results must be treated with caution. The occupations with the highest risk are outlined below.

Table 11: High harm occupations, road traffic claims 2016

Occupation sub sectorANZSCO 3-digit codeOccupation groupHarm index valueNumber of claims

Truck drivers

733

Machinery operators and drivers

2,896

115

Delivery drivers

732

Machinery operators and drivers

913

49

Miscellaneous labourers

899

Labourers

745

88

Defence force members, fire fighters and police

441

Community and personal services workers

259

26

Automobile, bus and rail drivers

731

Machinery operators and drivers

240

29

Results for on-duty road traffic incidents in Table 11 exclude all those occupations where there were 25 or fewer claims. Many high-risk occupations are in the Machinery operators and drivers group, as expected.

Delivery drivers and Miscellaneous labourers’ results worsened over the five years to 2016, where both harm indices and claim numbers increased. Truck drivers and Automobile, bus and rail drivers had mixed results, while fire fighters and police had an improvement in both claim numbers and index levels over time.

Sources: Queensland Employee Injury Database (QEIDB) (data extracted January 2018) and ABS, Censuses 2011 and 2016.

Appendix 1

Finalised claims (excluding on-duty road traffic and commuting claims)

Legend

Index value:
> 200  
101-200 
0-100 

Index valuesClaim numbers
Census year3 year average
Occupation2016201120162011
 

Accommodation and hospitality managers

31

33

151

213

Accountants, auditors and company secretaries

4

6

32

59

Accounting clerks and bookkeepers

11

7

157

159

Advertising, public relations and sales managers

24

27

119

151

Agricultural, medical and science technicians

49

51

188

279

Air and marine transport professionals

116

94

115

151

Animal attendants and trainers, and shearers

116

136

249

243

Architects, designers, planners and surveyors

14

61

70

163

Arts professionals

146

187

145

150

Automobile, bus and rail drivers

104

306

458

707

Automotive electricians and mechanics

128

123

1,113

1,324

Bricklayers, and carpenters and joiners

339

330

1,475

1,956

Building and engineering technicians

48

53

316

495

Business administration managers

17

17

81

118

Business and systems analysts, and programmers

2

2

15

19

Call or contact centre information clerks

10

19

78

162

Checkout operators and office cashiers

24

104

175

1,594

Chief executives, general managers and legislators

57

51

201

258

Child carers

52

59

811

709

Cleaners and laundry workers

111

127

2,108

2,571

Clerical and office support workers

34

30

182

239

Construction and mining labourers

410

330

2,721

3,303

Construction, distribution and production managers

30

30

303

455

Contract, program and project administrators

9

13

79

113

Database and systems administrators, and ICT security specialists

3

9

9

19

Defence force members, fire fighters and police

236

149

1,345

1,284

Delivery drivers

203

198

496

516

Education aides

41

40

633

653

Education, health and welfare services managers

44

42

187

155

Electricians

143

116

1,030

1,342

Electronics and telecommunications trades workers

87

69

470

689

Engineering professionals

32

36

202

325

Fabrication engineering trades workers

304

259

2,074

3,629

Farm, forestry and garden workers

150

169

1,135

1,159

Farmers and farm managers

66

83

139

239

Financial and insurance clerks

21

20

100

164

Financial brokers and dealers, and investment advisers

3

10

13

23

Floor finishers and painting trades workers

201

188

257

327

Food preparation assistants

51

56

1,124

1,226

Food process workers

244

383

1,610

2,979

Food trades workers

81

89

1,275

1,570

Freight handlers and shelf fillers

56

121

306

446

General clerks

68

57

1,118

1,323

Glaziers, plasterers and tilers

243

218

597

629

Hairdressers

28

193

71

185

Health and welfare support workers

180

235

1,437

1,647

Health diagnostic and promotion professionals

33

46

160

206

Health therapy professionals

19

18

81

81

Horticultural trades workers

138

163

575

889

Hospitality workers

32

6

975

1,382

Human resource and training professionals

28

22

76

133

ICT and telecommunications technicians

22

17

68

66

ICT managers

2

2

4

9

ICT network and support professionals

6

4

15

20

Information and organisation professionals

21

15

104

135

Insurance agents and sales representatives

47

60

213

367

Keyboard operators

13

13

39

63

Legal professionals

11

11

24

23

Logistics clerks

36

38

320

453

Machine operators

113

176

469

886

Mechanical engineering trades workers

143

120

1,408

2,152

Media professionals

18

17

32

47

Medical practitioners

14

23

101

120

Midwifery and nursing professionals

67

57

1,166

1,112

Miscellaneous clerical and administrative workers

31

31

224

266

Miscellaneous education professionals

20

18

63

54

Miscellaneous factory process workers

486

477

1,747

2,598

Miscellaneous hospitality, retail and service managers

35

47

307

456

Miscellaneous labourers

1,319

745

9,295

8,131

Miscellaneous sales support workers

26

72

95

340

Miscellaneous specialist managers

64

65

209

298

Miscellaneous technicians and trades workers

214

158

614

582

Mobile plant operators

267

213

1,590

2,002

Natural and physical science professionals

33

34

233

300

Office and practice managers

16

18

93

133

Packers and product assemblers

42

94

288

868

Panel beaters, and vehicle body builders, trimmers and painters

109

96

222

371

Personal assistants and secretaries

9

15

68

121

Personal carers and assistants

97

105

2,240

2,268

personal service and travel workers

55

54

251

263

Plumbers

131

168

544

682

Printing trades workers

72

72

84

129

Prison and security officers

185

215

573

639

Real estate sales agents

14

18

73

76

Receptionists

12

14

144

210

Retail managers

15

16

179

279

Sales assistants and salespersons

51

36

3,111

2,779

Sales, marketing and public relations professionals

13

12

82

114

School teachers

57

67

1,804

1,821

Social and welfare professionals

40

36

196

209

Sports and fitness workers

139

122

327

382

Stationary plant operators

278

226

1,204

1,880

Storepersons

201

188

2,166

2,726

Tertiary education teachers

19

26

88

122

Textile, clothing and footwear trades workers

57

44

25

59

Truck drivers

314

254

2,000

2,365

Wood trades workers

146

144

316

392

Appendix 2

Serious claims, excluding road traffic incidents

Legend

Index value:
> 200  
101-200 
0-100 

Index valuesClaim numbers
Census year3 year average
Occupation2016201120162011
 

Accommodation and hospitality managers

34

37

63

81

Accountants, auditors and company secretaries

5

5

12

16

Accounting clerks and bookkeepers

12

6

54

48

Advertising, public relations and sales managers

27

22

44

46

Agricultural, medical and science technicians

51

52

70

76

Air and marine transport professionals

123

89

56

61

Animal attendants and trainers, and shearers

128

150

90

81

Architects, designers, planners and surveyors

15

70

21

70

Arts professionals

151

209

45

41

Automobile, bus and rail drivers

110

339

199

344

Automotive electricians and mechanics

118

118

336

352

Bricklayers, and carpenters and joiners

291

277

591

735

Building and engineering technicians

48

48

99

146

Business administration managers

18

18

30

33

Business and systems analysts, and programmers

2

2

4

3

Call or contact centre information clerks

11

20

35

57

Checkout operators and office cashiers

26

102

69

472

Chief executives, general managers and legislators

59

53

72

75

Child carers

57

65

353

298

Cleaners and laundry workers

124

141

1,092

1,221

Clerical and office support workers

37

33

73

102

Construction and mining labourers

427

350

1,054

1,122

Construction, distribution and production managers

28

28

91

115

Contract, program and project administrators

10

14

28

37

Database and systems administrators, and ICT security specialists

3

7

3

5

Defence force members, fire fighters and police

221

157

407

314

Delivery drivers

220

222

257

253

Education aides

42

40

219

201

Education, health and welfare services managers

46

40

71

53

Electricians

132

96

314

321

Electronics and telecommunications trades workers

92

70

147

164

Engineering professionals

31

30

60

89

Fabrication engineering trades workers

287

227

501

690

Farm, forestry and garden workers

166

176

539

586

Farmers and farm managers

68

90

69

122

Financial and insurance clerks

21

20

33

59

Financial brokers and dealers, and investment advisers

3

12

4

8

Floor finishers and painting trades workers

184

189

141

152

Food preparation assistants

56

61

425

458

Food process workers

245

385

571

909

Food trades workers

88

96

504

547

Freight handlers and shelf fillers

50

104

121

182

General clerks

73

54

420

426

Glaziers, plasterers and tilers

261

223

240

238

Hairdressers

32

221

37

107

Health and welfare support workers

204

260

711

762

Health diagnostic and promotion professionals

35

42

54

74

Health therapy professionals

20

19

29

25

Horticultural trades workers

154

176

255

364

Hospitality workers

34

65

377

503

Human resource and training professionals

31

23

31

40

ICT and telecommunications technicians

24

18

24

21

ICT managers

2

1

1

2

ICT network and support professionals

6

4

5

5

Information and organisation professionals

23

16

38

44

Insurance agents and sales representatives

47

65

94

147

Keyboard operators

14

14

15

24

Legal professionals

11

12

9

6

Logistics clerks

38

36

113

143

Machine operators

120

187

158

277

Mechanical engineering trades workers

133

107

378

458

Media professionals

18

11

9

12

Medical practitioners

15

26

36

38

Midwifery and nursing professionals

76

64

543

478

Miscellaneous clerical and administrative workers

33

33

86

88

Miscellaneous education professionals

21

18

19

17

Miscellaneous factory process workers

493

462

476

623

Miscellaneous hospitality, retail and service managers

37

47

115

154

Miscellaneous labourers

1,088

551

3,277

2,484

Miscellaneous sales support workers

27

76

38

99

Miscellaneous specialist managers

63

65

66

80

Miscellaneous technicians and trades workers

185

156

193

171

Mobile plant operators

274

221

675

817

Natural and physical science professionals

33

31

81

86

Office and practice managers

17

20

39

48

Packers and product assemblers

43

99

101

280

Panelbeaters, and vehicle body builders, trimmers and painters

101

96

65

82

Personal assistants and secretaries

10

15

25

39

Personal carers and assistants

109

118

1,165

1,136

Personal service and travel workers

61

60

123

120

Plumbers

135

163

195

227

Printing trades workers

68

73

33

38

Prison and security officers

207

213

281

300

Real estate sales agents

15

18

31

29

Receptionists

13

15

54

73

Retail managers

16

17

78

101

Sales assistants and salespersons

54

36

1,148

864

Sales, marketing and public relations professionals

14

10

30

31

School teachers

59

69

570

566

Social and welfare professionals

45

38

94

84

Sports and fitness workers

145

133

178

175

Stationary plant operators

283

223

424

492

Storepersons

214

193

763

821

Tertiary education teachers

21

26

34

36

Textile, clothing and footwear trades workers

61

47

8

19

Tuck drivers

351

282

1,137

1,201

Wood trades workers

161

159

118

138

Appendix 3

On-duty road traffic incidents only

Legend

Index value:
> 200  
101-200 
0-100 

Index valuesClaim numbers
Census year3 year average
Occupation2016201120162011
 

Accommodation and hospitality managers

10

12

1

2

Accountants, auditors and company secretaries

13

6

1

2

Accounting clerks and bookkeepers

14

5

6

5

Advertising, public relations and sales managers

64

53

10

19

Agricultural, medical and science technicians

62

23

3

4

Air and marine transport professionals

48

26

1

1

Architects, designers, planners and surveyors

0

50

1

6

Arts professionals

5

1

1

1

Automobile, bus and rail drivers

240

2,839

29

69

Automotive electricians and mechanics

175

123

15

16

Bricklayers, and carpenters and joiners

34

13

7

6

Building and engineering technicians

90

64

10

15

Business administration managers

3

3

2

5

Business and systems analysts, and programmers

0

0

0

1

Call or contact centre information clerks

5

1

1

1

Checkout operators and office cashiers

1

7

0

2

Chief executives, general managers and legislators

229

32

7

9

Child carers

84

80

6

7

Cleaners and laundry workers

34

6

7

8

Clerical and office support workers

231

324

12

27

Construction and mining labourers

169

127

14

20

Construction, distribution and production managers

7

2

4

4

Contract, program and project administrators

16

27

4

7

Database and systems administrators, and ICT security specialists

34

5

1

1

Defence force members, fire fighters and police

259

237

26

39

Delivery drivers

913

553

49

33

Education aides

2

4

2

2

Education, health and welfare services managers

15

4

3

4

Electricians

126

58

12

19

Electronics and telecommunications trades workers

141

46

9

7

Engineering professionals

41

48

5

6

Fabrication engineering trades workers

30

31

3

6

Farm, forestry and garden workers

86

175

10

10

Farmers and farm managers

43

4

1

0

Financial and insurance clerks

1

29

2

4

Floor finishers and painting trades workers

295

5

1

1

Food preparation assistants

11

5

3

3

Food process workers

31

122

3

8

Food trades workers

41

8

3

3

Freight handlers and shelf fillers

33

302

2

8

General clerks

12

29

15

35

Glaziers, plasterers and tilers

7

27

2

4

Hairdressers

2

420

1

10

Health and welfare support workers

154

136

50

54

Health diagnostic and promotion professionals

1

95

0

8

Health therapy professionals

9

18

5

6

Horticultural trades workers

28

10

3

8

Hospitality workers

4

28

3

7

Human resource and training professionals

22

18

5

9

ICT and telecommunications technicians

60

6

2

5

ICT network and support professionals

1

16

1

2

Information and organisation professionals

5

6

1

4

Insurance agents and sales representatives

89

102

6

31

Keyboard operators

162

0

21

0

Legal professionals

1

0

0

0

Logistics clerks

16

131

3

5

Machine operators

0

2

1

1

Mechanical engineering trades workers

126

9

6

9

Media professionals

1

5

0

5

Medical practitioners

35

13

4

2

Midwifery and nursing professionals

22

17

13

14

Miscellaneous clerical and administrative workers

23

11

10

10

Miscellaneous education professionals

8

107

1

2

Miscellaneous factory process workers

84

43

6

9

Miscellaneous hospitality, retail and service managers

38

34

6

13

Miscellaneous labourers

745

266

88

80

Miscellaneous sales support workers

31

39

3

5

Miscellaneous specialist managers

39

214

8

11

Miscellaneous technicians and trades workers

17

50

6

8

Mobile plant operators

116

68

13

15

Natural and physical science professionals

37

24

4

4

Office and practice managers

4

16

3

6

Packers and product assemblers

3

1

1

1

Panelbeaters, and vehicle body builders, trimmers and painters

0

1

0

1

Personal assistants and secretaries

3

7

3

2

Personal carers and assistants

53

22

40

31

Personal service and travel workers

55

18

4

6

Plumbers

62

70

5

7

Printing trades workers

3

1

0

0

Prison and security officers

154

130

7

12

Real estate sales agents

90

71

9

10

Receptionists

1

6

2

4

Retail managers

1

6

1

2

Sales assistants and salespersons

14

6

21

20

Sales, marketing and public relations professionals

113

148

7

11

School teachers

2

10

7

13

Social and welfare professionals

45

40

10

12

Sports and fitness workers

5

4

1

2

Stationary plant operators

211

82

7

9

Storepersons

32

45

8

9

Tertiary education teachers

14

2

1

3

Truck drivers

2,896

1,378

115

125

Wood trades workers

10

31

1

3

Results

Harm index analysis for on-duty at place of work claims revealed the occupation groups with the highest index level occupations were:

  • Labourers
  • Machinery operators and drivers
  • Technicians and trades workers
  • Community and personal services workers

These four occupation groups represent half of the eight categories, yet their claim numbers account for 79 per cent of all in scope claims. It is a similar result for statutory payments, with these four occupation groups accounting for 80 per cent of the total. Further, the first three groups represent approximately two thirds of all claims and statutory payments.

Despite this, not all occupation groups were deemed high harm overall (Table 1). Only the Labourers group was high harm in 2016. This is generally because there are relatively risker occupations in the Labourers group. Refer to Table 2.

Table 1: Occupation groups with high harm occupations, 2016

Occupation groupIndex value1Number of claimsProportion of all claims (%)2

Labourers

320

10,430

33

Machinery operators and drivers

195

3,453

11

Technicians and trades workers

138

6,252

20

Community and personal services workers

96

4,811

15

Total (all claims)

100

31,684

100

1 Calculated using ANZSCO 3-digit results.

2 There are rounding errors in this table.

Overall there were 12 occupations that were deemed high risk in 2016 (Table 2), having a harm index that is more than twice that for all occupations. Workers in these occupations had the highest risk of severe harm in 2016. (Detailed results in Appendix 1.)

Table 2: High harm occupations, 2016

OccupationANZSCO 3-digit codeOccupation groupIndex valueNumber of claims

Miscellaneous labourers

899

Labourers

1,653

5,057

Bricklayers, and carpenters and joiners

331

Technicians and trades workers

484

846

Construction and mining labourers

821

Labourers

481

1,455

Miscellaneous factory process workers

839

Labourers

403

910

Stationary plant operators

712

Machinery operators and drivers

346

382

Glaziers, plasterers and tilers

333

Technicians and trades workers

333

361

Floor finishers and painting trades workers

332

Technicians and trades workers

312

135

Defence force members, fire fighters and police

441

Community and personal services workers

290

828

Truck drivers

733

Machinery operators and drivers

278

864

Fabrication engineering trades workers

322

Technicians and trades workers

253

832

Mobile plant operators

721

Machinery operators and drivers

237

654

Miscellaneous technicians and trades workers

399

Technicians and trades workers

213

300

The top ten improvements in harm index over the five-year period to 2016, are outlined in Table 3.

Improvements refer to relative improvements over time, so theoretically if all occupations except one were worse in 2016, the exception would show an improvement even if numbers of claims and statutory payments remained the same. Occupations, which were deemed either medium or high harm and had at least 3003 claims in 2011, were included in the analysis.

3 This represents less than one per cent of claims.

All improvements in Table 3 belong to the top three high harm occupation groups. Six of the ten occupations in Table 3 were deemed high harm in 2011. Claim numbers for this group of ten occupations accounted for 19 per cent of all claims in 2016.

Table 3: Top ten improvements in Harm Index, 2016

OccupationANZSCO 3-digit codeHarm Index value 2016Harm Index value 2011Number of claims 2016Number of claims 2011Harm Index point change

Bricklayers, and carpenters and joiners

331

484

601

846

1,021

-117

Plumbers

334

143

215

293

336

-72

Fabrication engineering trades workers

322

253

320

832

1332

-67

Horticultural trades workers

362

118

182

277

413

-64

Miscellaneous factory process workers

839

403

461

910

1,216

-58

Food process workers

831

194

249

729

980

-55

Glaziers, plasterers and tilers

333

333

388

361

333

-55

Farm, forestry and garden workers

841

141

187

439

416

-46

Cleaners and laundry workers

811

107

144

979

1,169

-37

Machine operators

711

88

119

215

364

-31

The ten worst performers over the period are revealed in Table 4. Performance is relative over time, so similarly, if all occupations except one improved in 2016, the exception would show worse results even if their numbers of claims and statutory payments remained the same. Occupations, which were deemed either medium or high harm with at least 300 claims in 2011, were included in the analysis.

Six occupations in Table 4 belong to the top four high harm occupation groups. The only occupations in the table that were not deemed high harm in 2016 (and do not appear in Table 2), were the last four occupations in the table: Electricians, Mechanical engineering trades workers, Storepersons, and Automotive electricians and mechanics. In 2011 and 2016 the Harm Indices for all four occupations were deemed medium harm.

Claim numbers for this group of ten occupations in Table 4 account for more than a third of all claims in 2016, at 37 per cent.

Table 4: Top ten deteriorations in harm index, 2016

OccupationANZSCO 3-digit codeHarm index value 2016Harm index value 2011Number of claims 2016Number of claims 2011Harm index point change

Miscellaneous labourers

899

1,653

1,046

5,057

4,066

607

Defence force members, fire fighters and police

441

290

180

828

709

110

Stationary plant operators

712

346

258

382

519

88

Construction and mining labourers

821

481

436

1,455

1,557

45

Mobile plant operators

721

237

199

654

814

38

Truck drivers

733

278

258

864

992

20

Electricians

341

170

150

541

651

20

Mechanical engineering trades workers

323

138

124

549

767

14

Storepersons

741

145

135

898

1,105

10

Automotive electricians and mechanics

321

122

113

482

555

9

Labourers
Labourers recorded the highest average index value of 320 (or 3.2 times the all occupation average), while also holding the largest number of claims, (33 per cent).

A third (33 per cent) of the Labourer occupation group comprised high risk occupations. These three occupations are listed in Table 5.

Table 5: Labourer occupations deemed high harm in 2016

OccupationANZSCO 3-digit codeIndex value 2016Index value 2011Number of claims 2016Number of claims 2011

Miscellaneous labourers

899

1,653

1,046

5,057

4,066

Construction and mining labourers

821

481

436

1,455

1,557

Miscellaneous factory process workers

839

403

461

910

1,216

Miscellaneous labourers was the riskiest occupation overall, both in 2011 and in 2016, with the numbers of claims rising significantly over time as well as relative risk. This occupation also had the most claims of any (5,057 or 16% of all claims in 2016), and three and a half times the number of claims of the next highest occupation (Construction and mining labourers with 1,455).

Construction and mining labourers also experienced an increase in the harm index, however their claim numbers decreased. This could be due to more severe injuries on average or a relatively slower improvement in risk.

Despite being deemed a high-risk occupation, there was improvement in the relative harm of Miscellaneous factory process workers. There was a decrease in both the index (from 4.61 times the all occupation average to 4.03 times), and the numbers of claims, which dropped by a quarter (25 per cent) over the five years to 2016 (from 1,216 to 910).

Machinery operators and drivers
Machinery operators and drivers recorded the second highest average index value of 195 (or 1.95 times the all occupation average), while also holding many claims (3,453 or 11 per cent of total).

There were three occupations within the Machinery operators and drivers group that were deemed high harm in 2016 (Table 6). Accordingly, the heat map revealed that the Machinery operators and drivers group had nearly half the occupations shaded red (43 per cent or three of the seven occupations).

All three occupations worsened over the five-year period to 2016, despite a consistent drop in the numbers of claims. This could be due to more severe injuries on average or a relatively slower rate of improvement or a combination of both these factors.

Table 6: Machinery operators and drivers deemed high harm in 2016

OccupationANZSCO 3 digitIndex value 2016Index value 2011Number of claims 2016Number of claims 2011

Stationary plant operators

712

346

258

382

519

Truck drivers

733

278

258

864

992

Mobile plant operators

721

237

199

654

814

Technicians and trades workers
The heat map revealed that on average, the Technicians and trades workers groupdemonstrated a medium harm index level at 1.38 times the all occupation average. Despite this moderate result, five occupations within this group of 21 were deemed high harm (Table 7) although harm indices for the five have mostly improved over time.

The exception was the Miscellaneous technicians and trades workers occupation, which was deemed medium harm in 2011. This occupation was also one of two to experience an increase in claims over the five years to 2016 (24.0 per cent). The other one was Glaziers, plasterers and tilers, with an 8.4 per cent increase in claims over the period.

Bricklayers, and carpenters and joiners (with a harm index of 484 or 4.84 times the all occupation average), were largely responsible for driving up the result for the occupation group. All high harm occupations have remained high risk over time, except for Miscellaneous technicians and trades workers.

Table 7: Technicians and trades workers occupations deemed high harm in 2016

OccupationANZSCO 3 digitIndex value 2016Index value 2011Number of claims 2016Number of claims 2011

Bricklayers, and carpenters and joiners

331

484

601

846

1,021

Glaziers, plasterers and tilers

333

333

388

361

333

Floor finishers and painting trades workers

332

312

343

135

139

Fabrication engineering trades workers

322

253

320

832

1,332

Miscellaneous technicians and trades workers

399

213

115

300

242

Community and personal services workers
The harm index for the Community and personal services workers group was 96 or approximately average for all occupations. There was only one out of nine occupations in this group that was deemed high harm: Defence force members, fire fighters and police (Table 8). This is not a surprising result given the nature of firefighting and police work.

Other personnel that are exposed to dangerous work, such as those in corrective services and paramedics, are in occupation categories that were assessed as medium risk of harm. For example Prison and security officers have a harm index of 157, or more than one and a half times the all occupation average. Health and welfare support workers have a harm index of 176.

The harm index and numbers of claims for fire fighters and police increased by 110 points and 16.8 per cent respectively, over the five years to 2016. This result can only be partially explained by the introduction of deemed diseases legislation, which meant that certain occupational cancer claims for firefighters were automatically accepted from 20154.

4 There were approximately 14 additional deemed diseases claims on average for all of Queensland in the 2016 results.

Table 8: Community and personal services workers at high risk of harm in 2016

OccupationANZSCO 3 digitIndex value 2016Index value 2011Number of claims 2016Number of claims 2011

Defence force members, fire fighters and police

441

290

180

828

709

Other occupations
The occupations in the table below are noteworthy despite not being categorised as high harm. This is based on significant index values and numbers of claims. The three occupations in Table 9 make up seven per cent of all claims and have a higher harm index than average.

Food process workers were deemed high harm in 2011, but significantly improved in both numbers and severity of claims over the five years to 2016. The Health and welfare support workers occupation made similar improvements, although its claim numbers have increased by 2.9 per cent. Electricians had fewer claims in 2016, however the relative risk of severity of harm in this occupation was higher than in 2011.

Table 9: Other noteworthy results in 2016

OccupationANZSCO 3 digitIndex value 2016Index value 2011Number of claims 2016Number of claims 2011

Food process workers

831

194

249

729

980

Health and welfare support workers

411

176

185

782

760

Electricians

341

170

150

541

651

Serious on-duty at place of work claims (5 or more days off work)
The heat map produced for serious claims (Appendix 2) revealed that high risk occupations were very similar to all finalised claims.

Likewise, the four occupation groups identified in Table 1 were of the highest harm, largely due to a high proportion of occupations in these groups deemed as high risk in 2016 (37 per cent). Examples include Miscellaneous labourers (1227 harm index), Construction and mining labourers (512), and Truck drivers (329). These three occupations also had large numbers of claims in 2016.

Almost all occupations identified as high harm in Table 2, were also assessed as being high harm when analysis was restricted to serious claims only. Harm indices and numbers of claims however were different, as expected, and are summarised in Table 10.

Using serious claims, Miscellaneous technicians and trades workers was deemed medium risk at 179 or nearly twice that of all occupations in 2016. Two other occupations were added to the high harm list for serious claims, one from the Community and personal services workers occupation group; Health and welfare support workers (index value 215) and the other from the Labourers occupation group; Food process workers (210).

Table 10: High harm occupations, serious claims 2016

OccupationANZSCO 3-digit codeOccupation groupIndex valueNumber of claims

Miscellaneous labourers

899

Labourers

1,227

1,748

Construction and mining labourers

821

Labourers

512

537

Miscellaneous factory process workers

839

Labourers

418

248

Bricklayers, and carpenters and joiners

331

Technicians and trades workers

373

325

Glaziers, plasterers and tilers

333

Technicians and trades workers

366

138

Stationary plant operators

712

Machinery operators and drivers

363

128

Truck drivers

733

Machinery operators and drivers

329

473

Floor finishers and painting trades workers

332

Technicians and trades workers

278

78

Defence force members, fire fighters and police

441

Community and personal services workers

269

240

Mobile plant operators

721

Machinery operators and drivers

262

272

Fabrication engineering trades workers

322

Technicians and trades workers

239

191

Health and welfare support workers

411

Community and personal services workers

215

380

Food process workers

831

Labourers

210

250

It is interesting to note that, while serious claims represent 38 per cent of all finalised on-duty at place of work claims for all occupations, this percentage drops to 33 per cent for Technicians and trades workers’ claims. The highest conversion rates to serious claims were 44 per cent and 43 per cent respectively for Community and personal services workers and Machinery operators and drivers. Labourers’ proportion of serious claims was 36 per cent.

Sources: Queensland Employee Injury Database (QEIDB) (data extracted January 2018) and ABS, Censuses 2011 and 2016.

Appendix 1

Finalised claims (excluding on-duty road traffic and commuting claims)

Legend

Index value:
> 200  
101-200 
0-100 

Index  valuesClaim  numbers
Census  year3  year average
Occupation2016201120162011
 

Accommodation and hospitality managers

20

30

71

100

Accountants, auditors and company secretaries

4

5

19

38

Accounting clerks and bookkeepers

7

8

83

94

Advertising, public relations and sales managers

17

23

59

70

Agricultural, medical and science technicians

39

39

112

156

Air and marine transport professionals

74

78

59

65

Animal attendants and trainers, and shearers

86

114

106

101

Architects, designers, planners and surveyors

7

11

34

52

Arts professionals

140

106

82

76

Automobile, bus and rail drivers

69

121

195

258

Automotive electricians and mechanics

122

113

482

555

Bricklayers, and carpenters and joiners

484

601

846

1,021

Building and engineering technicians

32

52

143

220

Business administration managers

14

13

50

67

Business and systems analysts, and programmers

1

2

11

14

Call or contact centre information clerks

8

18

43

94

Checkout operators and office cashiers

17

85

79

664

Chief executives, general managers and legislators

46

27

100

123

Child carers

49

41

477

346

Cleaners and laundry workers

107

144

979

1169

Clerical and office support workers

26

33

99

138

Construction and mining labourers

481

436

1,455

1,557

Construction, distribution and production managers

28

29

146

209

Contract, program and project administrators

6

12

47

76

Database and systems administrators, and ICT security specialists

3

9

6

13

Defence force members, fire fighters and police

290

180

828

709

Delivery drivers

162

186

245

250

Education aides

41

42

311

320

Education, health and welfare services managers

45

44

111

79

Electricians

170

150

541

651

Electronics and telecommunications trades workers

92

60

255

333

Engineering professionals

18

16

95

142

Fabrication engineering trades workers

253

320

832

1332

Farm, forestry and garden workers

141

187

439

416

Farmers and farm managers

66

66

35

55

Financial and insurance clerks

14

17

59

104

Financial brokers and dealers, and investment advisers

4

4

8

10

Floor finishers and painting trades workers

312

343

135

139

Food preparation assistants

43

57

592

594

Food process workers

194

249

729

980

Food trades workers

57

86

599

702

Freight handlers and shelf fillers

55

161

146

240

General clerks

68

62

714

729

Glaziers, plasterers and tilers

333

388

361

333

Hairdressers

31

27

44

51

Health and welfare support workers

176

185

782

760

Health diagnostic and promotion professionals

29

36

96

106

Health therapy professionals

20

22

50

48

Horticultural trades workers

118

182

277

413

Hospitality workers

28

41

484

638

Human resource and training professionals

14

15

39

72

ICT and telecommunications technicians

19

15

43

44

ICT managers

1

1

3

4

ICT network and support professionals

5

4

9

15

Information and organisation professionals

15

13

58

76

Insurance agents and sales representatives

29

25

89

139

Keyboard operators

9

14

25

41

Legal professionals

10

12

15

17

Logistics clerks

22

29

153

201

Machine operators

88

119

215

364

Mechanical engineering trades workers

138

124

549

767

Media professionals

16

7

18

21

Medical practitioners

13

16

66

67

Midwifery and nursing professionals

67

55

738

620

Miscellaneous clerical and administrative workers

23

19

112

118

Miscellaneous education professionals

18

15

36

26

Miscellaneous factory process workers

403

461

910

1,216

Miscellaneous hospitality, retail and service managers

25

46

148

228

Miscellaneous labourers

1,653

1,046

5,057

4,066

Miscellaneous sales support workers

26

44

54

146

Miscellaneous specialist managers

49

53

97

134

Miscellaneous technicians and trades workers

213

115

300

242

Mobile plant operators

237

199

654

814

Natural and physical science professionals

27

27

121

137

Office and practice managers

9

22

53

73

Packers and product assemblers

37

84

124

360

Panelbeaters, and vehicle body builders, trimmers and painters

108

112

102

191

Personal assistants and secretaries

8

14

40

76

Personal carers and assistants

103

117

1,316

1,231

Personal service and travel workers

55

40

157

140

Plumbers

143

215

293

336

Printing trades workers

60

66

52

82

Prison and security officers

157

178

290

301

Real estate sales agents

14

17

40

36

Receptionists

11

13

83

117

Retail managers

10

12

83

120

Sales assistants and salespersons

37

32

1,379

1,282

Sales, marketing and public relations professionals

8

9

39

60

School teachers

56

53

931

866

Social and welfare professionals

31

37

107

97

Sports and fitness workers

124

108

165

164

Stationary plant operators

346

258

382

519

Storepersons

145

135

898

1,105

Tertiary education teachers

16

18

46

63

Textile, clothing and footwear trades workers

53

29

14

33

Truck drivers

278

258

864

992

Wood trades workers

126

135

165

196

Appendix 2

Serious claims, excluding road traffic incidents

Legend

Index value:
> 200  
101-200 
0-100 

Index  valuesClaim  numbers
Census  year3  year average
Occupation2016201120162011
 

Accommodation and hospitality managers

22

37

28

37

Accountants, auditors and company secretaries

5

5

6

10

Accounting clerks and bookkeepers

8

8

26

31

Advertising, public relations and sales managers

20

18

22

20

Agricultural, medical and science technicians

43

44

40

39

Air and marine transport professionals

88

82

26

22

Animal attendants and trainers, and shearers

102

142

35

32

Architects, designers, planners and surveyors

7

13

8

16

Arts professionals

162

118

25

23

Automobile, bus and rail drivers

80

135

95

115

Automotive electricians and mechanics

110

104

147

147

Bricklayers, and carpenters and joiners

373

439

325

358

Building and engineering technicians

34

43

44

62

Business administration managers

16

15

18

20

Business and systems analysts, and programmers

1

2

4

2

Call or contact centre information clerks

9

21

19

34

Checkout operators and office cashiers

19

91

34

181

Chief executives, general managers and legislators

50

29

36

33

Child carers

57

49

204

136

Cleaners and laundry workers

128

173

510

553

Clerical and office support workers

30

41

36

59

Construction and mining labourers

512

481

537

488

Construction, distribution and production managers

27

27

44

48

Contract, program and project administrators

7

14

15

23

Database and systems administrators, and ICT security specialists

3

9

3

3

Defence force members, fire fighters and police

269

208

240

162

Delivery drivers

178

230

123

117

Education aides

46

47

110

101

Education, health and welfare services managers

50

40

43

26

Electricians

140

106

154

152

Electronics and telecommunications trades workers

107

65

73

73

Engineering professionals

16

16

23

35

Fabrication engineering trades workers

239

267

191

273

Farm, forestry and garden workers

161

202

193

194

Farmers and farm managers

78

59

15

21

Financial and insurance clerks

16

20

19

34

Financial brokers and dealers, and investment advisers

5

4

3

4

Floor finishers and painting trades workers

278

321

78

67

Food preparation assistants

49

69

213

221

Food process workers

210

283

250

290

Food trades workers

67

103

229

243

Freight handlers and shelf fillers

46

125

57

93

General clerks

79

61

268

231

Glaziers, plasterers and tilers

366

419

138

124

Hairdressers

38

34

22

22

Health and welfare support workers

215

229

380

346

Health diagnostic and promotion professionals

34

28

29

33

Health therapy professionals

24

26

20

15

Horticultural trades workers

138

219

116

168

Hospitality workers

33

48

184

220

Human resource and training professionals

17

17

15

25

ICT and telecommunications technicians

23

17

18

13

ICT managers

1

0

1

1

ICT network and support professionals

5

4

3

3

Information and organisation professionals

18

15

22

24

Insurance agents and sales representatives

26

27

37

44

Keyboard operators

10

16

9

17

Legal professionals

12

15

6

4

Logistics clerks

24

27

53

60

Machine operators

98

125

76

109

Mechanical engineering trades workers

113

106

134

159

Media professionals

19

8

6

5

Medical practitioners

15

18

25

19

Midwifery and nursing professionals

82

67

332

264

Miscellaneous clerical and administrative workers

27

21

43

35

Miscellaneous education professionals

21

16

12

9

Miscellaneous factory process workers

418

476

248

285

Miscellaneous hospitality, retail and service managers

29

49

53

73

Miscellaneous labourers

1,227

642

1,748

1,155

Miscellaneous sales support workers

31

46

24

38

Miscellaneous specialist managers

49

60

29

36

Miscellaneous technicians and trades workers

179

101

92

68

Mobile plant operators

262

227

272

310

Natural and physical science professionals

27

24

44

37

Office and practice managers

10

27

20

27

Packers and product assemblers

42

100

46

123

Panelbeaters, and vehicle body builders, trimmers and Painters

97

125

32

45

Personal assistants and secretaries

8

17

14

25

Personal carers and assistants

124

143

679

601

Personal service and travel workers

66

49

72

59

Plumbers

166

219

102

108

Printing trades workers

55

72

18

25

Prison and security officers

186

202

142

133

Real estate sales agents

16

18

17

14

Receptionists

12

15

30

41

Retail managers

12

15

36

43

Sales assistants and salespersons

42

34

495

379

Sales, marketing and public relations professionals

9

9

15

17

School teachers

61

57

285

259

Social and welfare professionals

37

43

50

40

Sports and fitness workers

138

129

86

77

Stationary plant operators

363

261

128

123

Storepersons

171

154

333

330

Tertiary education teachers

19

18

19

16

Textile, clothing and footwear trades workers

60

33

5

10

Truck drivers

329

308

473

471

Wood trades workers

148

162

61

62

Results

Harm index analysis for on-duty at place of work claims revealed the occupation groups with the highest index level occupations were:

  • Labourers
  • Machinery operators and drivers
  • Technicians and trades workers

These three occupation groups represent fewer than half of the eight categories, yet their claim numbers and statutory payments account for 69 per cent and 73 per cent respectively, of all in scope claims.

Despite this, not all occupation groups were deemed high harm overall (Table 1). Only the Labourers and Machinery operators and drivers groups were high harm in 2016. This is generally because there are relatively risker occupations in these groups. Refer to Table 2.

Table 1: Occupation groups with high harm occupations, 2016

Occupation group Index value1 Number of claims Proportion of all  claims (%)2

Labourers

268

3,017

30

Machinery operators and drivers

259

1,773

18

Technicians and trades workers

138

2,175

22

Total (all claims)

100

10,049

100

1 Calculated using ANZSCO 3-digit results.

2 There are rounding errors in this table..

Overall there were 13 occupations that were deemed high risk in 2016 (Table 2), having a harm index that is more than twice that for all occupations. Workers in these occupations had the highest risk of severe harm in 2016. (Detailed results in Appendix 1.)

Table 2: High harm occupations, 2016

Occupation ANZSCO 3-digit code Occupation group Index value Number of claims

Miscellaneous labourers

899

Labourers

873

1,287

Construction and mining labourers

821

Labourers

650

440

Bricklayers, and carpenters and joiners

331

Technicians  and trades workers

480

143

Miscellaneous factory process workers

839

Labourers

464

153

Glaziers, plasterers and tilers

333

Technicians  and trades workers

396

51

Mobile plant operators

721

Machinery  operators and drivers

352

389

Floor finishers and painting trades workers

332

Technicians  and trades workers

329

40

Fabrication engineering trades workers

322

Technicians  and trades workers

300

400

Stationary plant operators

712

Machinery  operators and drivers

286

571

Truck drivers

733

Machinery  operators and drivers

279

352

Delivery drivers

732

Machinery  operators and drivers

257

71

Miscellaneous technicians and trades workers

399

Technicians  and trades workers

247

116

Food process workers

831

Labourers

243

177

The top ten improvements in harm index over the five-year period to 2016, are outlined in Table 3.

Improvements refer to relative improvements over time, so theoretically if all occupations except one were worse in 2016, the exception would show an improvement even if numbers of claims and statutory payments remained the same. Occupations, which were deemed either medium or high harm and had at least 1003 claims in 2011 were included in the analysis.

3 This represents less than one per cent of claims.

Most improvements in Table 3 belong to the top three high harm occupation groups. Only three of the ten occupations in Table 3 were deemed high harm in 2011. Claim numbers for this group of ten occupations accounted for 18 per cent of all claims in 2016.

Table 3: Top ten improvements in Harm Index, 2016

Occupation ANZSCO 3-digit code Harm index value 2016 Harm index value 2011 Number of claims 2016 Number of claims 2011 Harm index point  change

Plumbers

334

141

361

84

128

-220

Food process workers

831

243

394

177

402

-151

Horticultural trades workers

362

96

216

93

161

-120

Checkout operators and office cashiers

631

40

134

30

300

-94

Automobile, bus and rail drivers

731

149

196

140

160

-47

Cleaners and laundry workers

811

93

134

385

518

-41

Farm, forestry and garden workers

841

162

196

334

351

-34

Prison and security officers

442

143

175

93

102

-32

Automotive electricians and mechanics

321

108

132

177

235

-24

Personal carers and assistants

423

90

109

307

321

90

The ten worst performers over the period are revealed in Table 4. Performance is relative over time, so similarly, if all occupations except one improved in 2016, the exception would show worse results even if their numbers of claims and statutory payments remained the same. Occupations which were deemed either medium or high harm with at least 100 claims in 2011 were included in the analysis.

All occupations in Table 4 belong to the top three high harm occupation groups. The only occupations in the table that were not deemed high harm in 2016 (and do not appear in Table 2) were the last three occupations in the table: Electricians, Mechanical engineering trades workers; and Storepersons. In 2011 and 2016 the Harm Indices for all three occupations were deemed medium harm.

Claim numbers for this group of ten occupations in Table 4 account for more than a third of all claims in 2016, at 37 per cent.

Table 4: Top ten deteriorations in harm index, 2016

Occupation ANZSCO 3-digit code Harm Index value 2016 Harm Index value 2011 Number of claims 2016 Number of claims 2011 Harm Index point  change

Construction and mining labourers

821

650

389

440

666

261

Miscellaneous labourers

899

873

698

1287

1410

175

Bricklayers, and carpenters and joiners

331

480

333

143

245

147

Miscellaneous factory process workers

839

464

363

153

245

101

Glaziers, plasterers and tilers

333

396

296

51

73

100

Fabrication engineering trades workers

322

300

242

400

820

58

Mobile plant operators

721

352

332

389

505

20

Electricians

341

116

104

180

273

12

Mechanical engineering trades workers

323

137

126

435

698

11

Storepersons

741

152

142

197

299

10

Labourers
Labourers recorded the highest average index value of 268 (or 2.68 times the all occupation average), while also holding the largest number of claims (30 per cent).

Almost half (44 per cent) of the Labourer occupation group comprised high risk occupations. These four occupations are listed in Table 5.

Table 5: Labourer occupations deemed high harm in 2016

Occupation ANZSCO 3-digit code Index value 2016 Index value 2011 Number of claims 2016 Number of claims 2011

Miscellaneous labourers

899

873

698

1,287

1,410

Construction and mining labourers

821

650

389

440

666

Miscellaneous factory process workers

839

464

363

153

245

Food process workers

831

243

394

177

402

Miscellaneous labourers were the riskiest occupation overall, both in 2011 and in 2016, although the numbers of claims dropped over time, counter to relative risk. This occupation also had the most claims of any (1,287 or 13 per cent of all claims in 2016), and more than twice the number of claims of the next highest occupation (Stationary plant operators with 571).

Construction and mining labourers and Miscellaneous factory workers also experienced an increase in the harm index, however their claim numbers decreased. This could be due to more severe injuries on average or a relatively slower improvement in risk.

Despite being deemed a high-risk occupation, there was improvement in the relative harm of Food process workers. There was a decrease in both the index (from 3.94 times the all occupation average to 2.43 times), and the numbers of claims, which dropped by more than half (56 per cent) over the five years to 2016 (from 402 to 177).

Machinery operators and drivers
Machinery operators and drivers recorded the second highest average index value of 259 (or 2.59 times the all occupation average), while also holding many claims (1,773 or 18 per cent of total).

There were four occupations within the Machinery operators and drivers group that were deemed high harm in 2016 (Table 6). Accordingly, the heat map revealed that the Machinery operators and drivers group had more than half the occupations shaded red (57 per cent or four of the seven occupations).

Three of the occupations worsened over the five-year period to 2016, despite a consistent drop in the numbers of claims. This could be due to more severe injuries on average or a relatively slower rate of improvement or a combination of both these factors. The only occupation that improved both in harm index and claim numbers was Truck drivers.

Table 6: Machinery operators and drivers deemed high harm in 2016

Occupation ANZSCO 3 digit Index value 2016 Index value 2011 Number of claims 2016 Number of claims 2011

Mobile plant operators

721

352

332

389

505

Stationary plant operators

712

286

284

571

946

Truck drivers

733

279

285

352

466

Delivery drivers

732

257

254

71

86

Technicians and trades workers
The heat map revealed that on average, the Technicians and trades workers groupdemonstrated a medium harm index level at 1.38 times the all occupation average. Despite this moderate result, five occupations within this group of 21 were deemed high harm (Table 7) and indices for all five have worsened over time.

The Miscellaneous technicians and trades workers occupation was the only occupation in the group deemed medium harm in 2011. This occupation was also the only one to experience an increase in claims over the five years to 2016 (18.4 per cent).

Bricklayers, and carpenters and joiners and Fabrication engineering trades workers, were largely responsible for driving up the result for the occupation group.

Table 7: Technicians and trades workers occupations deemed high harm in 2016

Occupation ANZSCO 3 digit Index value 2016 Index value 2011 Number of claims 2016 Number of claims 2011

Bricklayers, and carpenters and joiners

331

480

333

143

245

Glaziers, plasterers and tilers

333

396

296

51

73

Floor finishers and painting trades workers

332

329

244

40

63

Fabrication engineering trades workers

322

300

242

400

820

Miscellaneous technicians and trades workers

399

247

149

116

98

Other occupations
The occupations in the table below are noteworthy despite not being categorised as high harm. This is based on significant index values and numbers of claims. The six occupations in Table 8 make up 13 per cent of all claims and have a higher harm index than average.

The Plumbers occupation was the only one deemed high harm in 2011, but significantly improved in both numbers and severity of claims over the five years to 2016. In fact, all occupations in the table made similar improvements, except for Mechanical engineering trades workers, which experienced an increase in harm index over the period (from 126 to 137).

Table 8: Other noteworthy results in 2016

Occupation ANZSCO 3 digit Index value 2016 Index value 2011 Number of claims 2016 Number of claims 2011

Farm, forestry and Garden workers

841

162

196

334

351

Automobile, bus and rail drivers

731

149

196

140

160

Health and welfare support workers

411

147

151

220

234

Prison and security officers

442

143

175

93

102

Plumbers

334

141

361

84

128

Mechanical engineering trades workers

323

137

126

435

698

Serious on-duty at place of work claims (5 or more days off work)
The heat map produced for serious claims (Appendix 2) revealed that high risk occupations were very similar to all finalised claims.

Likewise, the three occupation groups identified in Table 1 were of the highest harm, largely due to a high proportion of occupations in these groups deemed as high risk in 2016 (33 per cent). Examples include Miscellaneous labourers (873 harm index), Construction and mining labourers (650), and Mobile plant operators (352). These three occupations also had large numbers of claims in 2016.

Almost all occupations identified as high harm in Table 2, were also assessed as being high harm when analysis was restricted to serious claims only. Harm indices and numbers of claims however were different, as expected, and are summarised in Table 9.

The only exception was Food process workers, which was deemed medium risk at 189 or nearly twice that of all occupations in 2016, when analysis was limited to serious claims.

Table 9: High harm occupations, serious claims 2016

Occupation ANZSCO 3-digit code Occupation group Index value Number of claims

Miscellaneous labourers

899

Labourers

873

1,287

Construction and mining labourers

821

Labourers

650

440

Bricklayers, and carpenters and joiners

331

Technicians  and trades workers

480

143

Miscellaneous factory process workers

839

Labourers

464

153

Glaziers, plasterers and tilers

333

Technicians  and trades workers

396

51

Floor finishers and painting trades workers

332

Technicians  and trades workers

329

40

Mobile plant operators

721

Machinery  operators and drivers

352

389

Truck drivers

733

Machinery  operators and drivers

279

352

Delivery drivers

732

Machinery  operators and drivers

257

71

Stationary plant operators

712

Machinery  operators and drivers

286

571

Fabrication engineering trades workers

322

Technicians  and trades workers

300

400

Miscellaneous technicians and trades workers

399

Technicians  and trades workers

247

116

It is interesting to note that, while serious claims represent 42 per cent of all finalised on-duty at place of work claims for all occupations, this percentage drops to 36 per cent for Technicians and trades workers’ claims. The highest conversion rate to serious claims was 48 per cent for Community and personal services workers. Labourers’ proportion of serious claims was 42 per cent, similar to Machinery operators and drivers with 43 per cent.

Sources: Queensland Employee Injury Database (QEIDB) (data extracted January 2018) and ABS, Censuses 2011 and 2016.

Appendix 1

Heat map – Finalised claims (excluding on-duty road traffic and commuting claims)

Legend

Index value:
> 200  
101-200 
0-100 

Index   values Claim   numbers
Census   year 3   year average
Occupation 2016 2011 2016 2011
 

Accommodation  and hospitality managers

31

48

20

43

Accountants, auditors and company secretaries

3

4

3

6

Accounting clerks and bookkeepers

4

5

16

17

Advertising, public relations and sales managers

27

46

13

18

Agricultural, medical and science technicians

75

36

26

40

Air and marine transport professionals

161

183

35

58

Animal attendants and trainers, and shearers

109

72

25

27

Architects, designers, planners and surveyors

23

18

11

17

Arts professionals

109

62

10

16

Automobile, bus and rail drivers

149

196

140

160

Automotive electricians and mechanics

108

132

177

235

Bricklayers, and carpenters and joiners

480

333

143

245

Building and engineering technicians

54

50

65

113

Business administration managers

26

38

10

14

Business and systems analysts, and programmers

1

0

1

1

Call or contact centre information clerks

4

9

10

18

Checkout operators and office cashiers

40

134

30

300

Chief executives, general managers and legislators

82

89

32

46

Child carers

41

31

73

78

Cleaners and laundry workers

93

134

385

518

Clerical and office support workers

37

28

22

38

Construction and mining labourers

650

389

440

666

Construction, distribution and production managers

30

29

33

55

Contract, program and project administrators

23

8

14

12

Database and systems administrators, and ICT security specialists

1

0

1

1

Defence force members, fire fighters and police

104

101

185

238

Delivery drivers

257

254

71

86

Education aides

25

30

82

84

Education, health and welfare services managers

34

55

27

26

Electricians

116

104

180

273

Electronics and telecommunications trades workers

66

100

73

147

Engineering professionals

59

65

37

66

Fabrication engineering trades workers

300

242

400

820

Farm, forestry and garden workers

162

196

334

351

Farmers and farm managers

90

90

47

74

Financial and insurance clerks

9

10

5

13

Financial brokers and dealers, and investment advisers

1

1

1

2

Floor finishers and painting trades workers

329

244

40

63

Food preparation assistants

46

62

156

210

Food process workers

243

394

177

402

Food trades workers

75

97

208

288

Freight handlers and shelf fillers

56

91

62

72

General clerks

46

49

131

196

Glaziers, plasterers and tilers

396

296

51

73

Hairdressers

9

8

5

8

Health and welfare support workers

147

151

220

234

Health diagnostic and promotion professionals

22

48

20

32

Health therapy professionals

5

10

9

10

Horticultural trades workers

96

216

93

161

Hospitality workers

31

46

170

236

Human resource and training professionals

43

69

17

22

ICT and telecommunications technicians

22

6

8

5

ICT managers

1

3

0

1

ICT network and support professionals

3

4

0

1

Information and organisation professionals

21

30

16

22

Insurance agents and sales representatives

107

91

39

55

Keyboard operators

3

4

3

5

Legal professionals

16

0

2

1

Logistics clerks

38

35

40

54

Machine operators

134

148

52

116

Mechanical engineering trades workers

137

126

435

698

Media professionals

19

4

3

4

Medical practitioners

8

28

9

20

Midwifery and nursing professionals

69

60

156

159

Miscellaneous clerical and administrative workers

45

38

38

46

Miscellaneous education professionals

16

32

5

9

Miscellaneous factory process workers

464

363

153

245

Miscellaneous hospitality, retail and service managers

29

47

38

75

Miscellaneous labourers

873

698

1,287

1,410

Miscellaneous sales support workers

24

85

8

56

Miscellaneous specialist managers

67

75

32

48

Miscellaneous technicians and trades workers

247

149

116

98

Mobile plant operators

352

332

389

505

Natural and physical science professionals

46

53

47

74

Office and practice managers

30

9

14

19

Packers and product assemblers

25

99

24

70

Panelbeaters, and vehicle body builders, trimmers and painters

56

54

15

31

Personal assistants and secretaries

11

8

7

11

Personal  carers and assistants

90

109

307

321

Personal  service and travel workers

72

41

49

56

Plumbers

141

361

84

128

Printing trades workers

21

12

3

3

Prison and security officers

143

175

93

102

Real estate sales agents

13

6

9

10

Receptionists

15

15

20

27

Retail managers

13

20

24

38

Sales assistants and salespersons

58

36

492

433

Sales, marketing and public relations professionals

22

8

11

13

School teachers

42

42

227

232

Social and welfare professionals

39

34

34

38

Sports and fitness workers

184

211

54

74

Stationary plant operators

286

284

571

946

Storepersons

152

142

197

299

Tertiary education teachers

31

32

19

17

Textile, clothing and footwear trades workers

1

69

1

3

Truckdrivers

279

285

352

466

Woodtrades workers

109

141

29

44

Appendix 2

Heat map - Serious claims, excluding road traffic incidents

Legend

Index value:
> 200  
101-200 
0-100 

Index values Claim numbers
Census year 3 year average
Occupation 2016 2011 2016 2011
 

Accommodation and hospitality managers

32

52

8

19

Accountants, auditors and company secretaries

3

2

1

1

Accounting clerks and bookkeepers

3

3

6

5

Advertising, public relations and sales managers

26

47

5

6

Agricultural, medical and science technicians

76

33

12

10

Air and marine transport professionals

166

161

20

28

Animal attendants and trainers, and shearers

112

71

12

10

Architects, designers, planners and surveyors

24

18

5

5

Arts professionals

96

58

4

4

Automobile, bus and rail drivers

134

180

40

45

Automotive electricians and mechanics

96

132

59

70

Bricklayers, and carpenters and joiners

493

320

76

112

Building and engineering technicians

41

46

21

28

Business administration managers

27

41

5

6

Business and systems analysts, and programmers

1

41

0

6

Call or contact centre information clerks

4

8

4

4

Checkout operators and office cashiers

39

131

13

107

Chief executives, general managers and legislators

84

88

13

15

Child carers

42

31

35

38

Cleaners and laundry workers

94

141

199

244

Clerical and office support workers

38

29

10

17

Construction and mining labourers

651

395

190

221

Construction, distribution and production managers

29

27

13

18

Contract, program and project administrators

24

8

5

5

Database and systems administrators, and ICT security specialists

1

8

0

5

Defence force members, fire fighters and police

102

99

62

66

Delivery drivers

270

275

45

49

Education aides

24

29

27

29

Education, health and welfare services managers

33

60

9

14

Electricians

117

88

59

65

Electronics and telecommunications trades workers

52

97

24

38

Engineering professionals

59

36

16

21

Fabrication engineering trades workers

249

222

108

150

Farm, forestry and garden workers

164

204

173

202

Farmers and farm managers

78

96

29

40

Financial and insurance clerks

9

10

2

5

Financial brokers and dealers, and investment advisers

1

0

0

1

Floor finishers and painting trades workers

341

256

20

29

Food preparation assistants

45

65

65

84

Food process workers

189

314

48

106

Food trades workers

76

101

87

116

Freight handlers and shelf fillers

54

92

26

31

General clerks

45

48

53

73

Glaziers, plasterers and tilers

421

320

29

32

Hairdressers

10

8

3

4

Health and welfare support workers

152

162

122

112

Health diagnostic and promotion professionals

19

47

6

14

Health therapy professionals

4

9

2

3

Horticultural trades workers

95

211

41

73

Hospitality workers

29

45

73

88

Human resource and training professionals

40

72

5

7

ICT and telecommunications technicians

18

3

2

1

Information and organisation professionals

20

28

7

7

Insurance agents and sales representatives

109

96

21

23

Keyboard operators

2

3

1

1

Legal professionals

16

3

1

1

Logistics clerks

36

33

15

18

Machine operators

132

151

17

44

Mechanical engineering trades workers

129

107

134

147

Media professionals

19

2

2

1

Medical practitioners

7

29

3

7

Midwifery and nursing professionals

72

63

90

72

Miscellaneous clerical and administrative workers

45

38

14

19

Miscellaneous education professionals

16

32

2

4

Miscellaneous factory process workers

445

314

47

61

Miscellaneous hospitality, retail and service managers

29

45

16

28

Miscellaneous labourers

818

602

511

506

Miscellaneous sales support workers

19

75

4

15

Miscellaneous specialist managers

61

71

11

16

Miscellaneous technicians and trades workers

235

143

42

31

Mobile plant operators

332

332

175

237

Natural and physical science professionals

45

53

18

26

Office and practice managers

30

8

9

7

Packers and product assemblers

20

101

7

26

Panelbeaters, and vehicle body builders, trimmers and painters

57

46

5

9

Personal assistants and secretaries

11

8

3

4

Personal carers and assistants

92

118

167

173

Personal service and travel workers

74

40

29

27

Plumbers

139

323

35

54

Printing trades workers

22

13

2

1

Prison and security officers

147

186

49

53

Realestate sales agents

14

6

4

4

Receptionists

14

16

10

12

Retail managers

13

21

10

17

Sales assistants and salespersons

55

36

200

151

Sales, marketing and public relations professionals

23

6

4

3

Schoolteachers

41

42

78

76

Social and welfare professionals

40

32

15

17

Sports and fitness workers

166

230

34

44

Stationary plant operators

264

264

208

245

Storepersons

143

136

72

99

Tertiary education teachers

30

32

8

6

Truckdrivers

277

298

206

251

Woodtrades workers

112

148

11

20

Results

Harm index analysis for on-duty at place of work claims revealed the occupation groups with the highest index level occupations were:

  • Labourers
  • Machinery operators and drivers
  • Technicians and trades workers
  • Community and personal services workers

These four occupation groups represent half of the eight categories, yet their claim numbers account for 80 per cent of all in scope claims. It is a similar result for statutory payments, with these four occupation groups accounting for 79 per cent of the total. Further, the first three groups represent approximately two thirds of all claims and statutory payments.

Despite this, not all occupation groups were deemed high harm overall (Table 1). Only the Labourers and Machinery operators and drivers groups were high harm in 2016. This is generally because there are relatively risker occupations in the Labourers group. Refer to Table 2.

Table 1: Occupation groups with high harm occupations, 2016

Occupation groupIndex value1Number of claimsProportion of all claims (%)2

Labourers

246

5,977

31

Machinery operators and drivers

237

2,737

14

Technicians and trades workers

153

4159

22

Community and personal services workers

88

2364

12

Total (all claims)

100

19,111

100

1 Calculated using ANZSCO 3-digit results.

2 There are rounding errors in this table.

Overall there were 13 occupations that were deemed high risk in 2016 (Table 2), having a harm index that is more than twice that for all occupations. Workers in these occupations had the highest risk of severe harm in 2016. (Detailed results in Appendix 1.)

Table 2: High harm occupations, 2016

OccupationANZSCO 3-digit codeOccupation groupIndex valueNumber of claims

Miscellaneous labourers

899

Labourers

1,077

2,509

Miscellaneous factory process workers

839

Labourers

502

615

Fabrication engineering trades workers

322

Technicians and trades workers

334

798

Construction and mining labourers

821

Labourers

331

719

Truck drivers

733

Machinery operators and drivers

323

660

Bricklayers, and carpenters and joiners

331

Technicians and trades workers

296

456

Storepersons

741

Machinery operators and drivers

275

933

Glaziers, plasterers and tilers

333

Technicians and trades workers

270

166

Food process workers

831

Labourers

260

661

Prison and security officers

442

Community and personal services workers

259

168

Mobile plant operators

721

Machinery operators and drivers

246

492

Horticultural trades workers

362

Technicians and trades workers

228

192

Defence force members, fire fighters and police

441

Community and personal services workers

219

325

The top ten improvements in harm index over the five-year period to 2016, are outlined in Table 3.

Improvements refer to relative improvements over time, so theoretically if all occupations except one were worse in 2016, the exception would show an improvement even if numbers of claims and statutory payments remained the same. Occupations which were deemed either medium or high harm and had at least 2003 claims in 2011 were included in the analysis.

3 This represents approximately one per cent of claims.

All improvements in Table 3 belong to the top four high harm occupation groups. Six of the ten occupations in Table 3 were deemed high harm in 2011. Claim numbers for this group of ten occupations accounted for 20 per cent of all claims in 2016.

Table 3: Top ten improvements in Harm Index, 2016

OccupationANZSCO 3-digit codeHarm index value 2016Harm index value 2011Number of claims 2016Number of claims 2011Harm index point change

Food process workers

831

260

420

661

1530

-160

Bricklayers, and carpenters and joiners

331

296

394

456

654

-98

Miscellaneous factory process workers

839

502

592

615

1086

-90

Construction and mining labourers

821

331

419

719

935

-88

Glaziers, plasterers and tilers

333

270

352

166

210

-82

Stationary plant operators

712

180

234

196

345

-54

Machine operators

711

123

173

183

360

-50

Farm, forestry and garden workers

841

159

187

334

370

-28

Plumbers

334

152

177

152

211

-25

Health and welfare support workers

411

176

200

408

566

-24

The ten worst performers over the period are revealed in Table 4. Performance is relative over time, so similarly, if all occupations except one improved in 2016, the exception would show worse results even if their numbers of claims and statutory payments remained the same. Occupations, which were deemed medium to high harm with approximately 200 claims in 2011 were included in the analysis.

All occupations in Table 4 belong to the top four high harm occupation groups. The only occupations in the table that were not deemed high harm in 2016, (and do not appear in Table 2), were the last five occupations in the table: Miscellaneous technicians and trades workers; Electricians, Electronics and telecommunications trades workers; Mechanical engineering trades workers; and Food trades workers. The only occupations that were considered lower than average harm in 2011 in Table 4 were Electronics and telecommunications trades workers, and Food trades workers.

Claim numbers for this group of ten occupations in Table 4 account for almost a third of all claims in 2016, at 30 per cent.

Table 4: Top ten deteriorations in harm index, 2016

OccupationANZSCO 3-digit codeHarm index value 2016Harm index value 2011Number of claims 2016Number of claims 2011Harm index point change

Miscellaneous labourers

899

1077

651

2,509

2,424

426

Defence force members, fire fighters and police

441

219

115

325

325

104

Fabrication engineering trades workers

322

334

250

798

1435

84

Horticultural trades workers

362

228

171

192

305

57

Truck drivers

733

323

280

660

805

43

Miscellaneous technicians and trades workers

399

154

122

169

214

32

Electricians

341

152

121

265

367

31

Electronics and telecommunications trades workers

342

103

83

123

192

20

Mechanical engineering trades workers

323

155

144

368

643

11

Food trades workers

351

102

92

419

556

10

Labourers
Labourers recorded the highest average index value of 246 (or 2.46 times the all occupation average), while also holding the largest number of claims (31 per cent).

Almost half (44 per cent) of the Labourer occupation group comprised high risk occupations. These four occupations are listed in Table 5.

Table 5: Labourer occupations deemed high harm in 2016

OccupationANZSCO 3-digit codeIndex value 2016Index value 2011Number of claims 2016Number of claims 2011

Miscellaneous labourers

899

1,077

651

2,509

2,424

Miscellaneous factory process workers

839

502

592

615

1,086

Construction and mining labourers

821

331

419

719

935

Food process workers

831

260

420

661

1,530

Miscellaneous labourers was the riskiest occupation overall, both in 2011 and in 2016, with the numbers of claims rising significantly over time as well as relative risk. This occupation also had the most claims of any (2,509 or 13 per cent of all claims in 2016) and more than twice the number of claims of the next highest occupation (Sales assistants and salespersons with 1,107).

The remaining three Labourer occupations experienced an improvement in both the harm index as well as the numbers of claims in 2016. The largest improvement was for Food process workers. This occupation’s harm index decreased by 160 points and there were 869 fewer claims, which represent a 57 per cent reduction over the five years to 2016.

Machinery operators and drivers
Machinery operators and drivers recorded the second highest average index value of 237 (or 2.37 times the all occupation average), while also holding many claims (2,737 or 14 per cent of total).

There were three occupations within the Machinery operators and drivers group that were deemed high harm in 2016 (Table 6). Accordingly, the heat map revealed that the Machinery operators and drivers group had nearly half the occupations shaded red (43 per cent or three of the seven occupations).

The Truck driver occupation worsened over the five-year period to 2016, despite a drop in claims. This could be due to more severe injuries on average or a relatively slower rate of improvement or a combination of both these factors. The other two Machinery operators and drivers occupations experienced a reduction in both harm index and numbers of claims over the period.

Table 6: Machinery operators and drivers deemed high harm in 2016

OccupationANZSCO 3 digitIndex value 2016Index value 2011Number of claims 2016Number of claims 2011

Truck drivers

733

323

280

660

805

Storepersons

741

275

297

933

1,238

Mobile plant operators

721

246

255

492

635

Technicians and trades workers
The heat map revealed that on average, the Technicians and trades workers groupdemonstrated a medium harm index level at 1.53 times the all occupation average. Despite this moderate result, four occupations within this group of 21 were deemed high harm (Table 7). Numbers of claims however have declined for all four occupations.

Fabrication engineering trades workers (with a harm index of 334 or 3.34 times the all occupation average) were largely responsible for driving up the result for the occupation group. All high harm occupations have remained high risk over time, except for Horticultural trades workers, which was deemed medium risk in 2011.

Table 7: Technicians and trades workers occupations deemed high harm in 2016

OccupationANZSCO 3 digitIndex value 2016Index value 2011Number of claims 2016Number of claims 2011

Fabrication engineering trades workers

322

334

250

798

1,435

Bricklayers, and carpenters and joiners

331

296

394

456

654

Glaziers, plasterers and tilers

333

270

352

166

210

Horticultural trades workers

362

228

171

192

305

Community and personal services workers
The harm index for the Community and personal services workers group was 88 or approximately average for all occupations. There were two out of nine occupations in this group that were deemed high harm (Table 8). This is not a surprising result given the nature of firefighting, police, and prison work.

Other personnel that are exposed to dangerous work, such as paramedics, are in occupation categories that were assessed as medium risk of harm. For example, Health and welfare support workers have a harm index of 176.

The harm index for fire fighters and police increased by 104 points while numbers of claims remained static over the five years to 2016. Without the introduction of deemed diseases legislation, which meant that certain occupational cancer claims for firefighters were automatically accepted from 20154, numbers of claims would have decreased.

4 There were approximately 14 additional deemed diseases claims on average for all of Queensland in the 2016 results.

Table 8: Community and personal services workers at high risk of harm in 2016

OccupationANZSCO 3 digitIndex value 2016Index value 2011Number of claims 2016Number of claims 2011

Prison and security officers

442

259

268

168

214

Defence force members, fire fighters and police

441

219

115

325

325

Other occupations
The occupations in the table below are noteworthy despite not being categorised as high harm. This is based on significant index values and numbers of claims. The five occupations in Table 9 make up eight per cent of all claims and have a higher harm index than average.

Stationary plant operators were deemed high harm in 2011, but significantly improved in both numbers and severity of claims over the five years to 2016. The mechanical engineering trades workers occupation had fewer claims in 2016, however the relative risk of severity of harm in this occupation was higher than in 2011.

Table 9: Other noteworthy results in 2016

OccupationANZSCO 3 digitIndex value 2016Index value 2011Number of claims 2016Number of claims 2011

Stationary plant operators

712

180

234

196

345

Health and welfare support workers

411

176

200

408

566

Farm, forestry and garden workers

841

159

187

334

370

Mechanical engineering trades workers

323

155

144

368

643

Electricians

341

152

121

265

367

Serious on-duty at place of work claims (5 or more days off work)
The heat map produced for serious claims (Appendix 2) revealed that high risk occupations were very similar to all finalised claims.

Likewise, the four occupation groups identified in Table 1 were of the highest harm, largely due to a high proportion of occupations in these groups deemed as high risk in 2016 (30 per cent). Examples include Miscellaneous labourers (1,075 harm index) and Truck drivers (349). These two occupations also had large numbers of claims in 2016.

All occupations identified as high harm in Table 2, were also assessed as being high harm when analysis was restricted to serious claims only. Harm indices and numbers of claims however were different, as expected, and are summarised in Table 10.

Delivery drivers were added to the high-risk category when analysis was restricted to serious claims, with a harm index of 209 or just over twice that of all occupations in 2016.

Table 10: High harm occupations, serious claims 2016

OccupationANZSCO 3-digit codeOccupation groupIndex valueNumber of claims

Miscellaneous labourers

899

Labourers

1,075

889

Miscellaneous factory process workers

839

Labourers

501

164

Truck drivers

733

Machinery operators and drivers

349

383

Construction and mining labourers

821

Labourers

329

290

Fabrication engineering trades workers

322

Technicians and trades workers

319

193

Bricklayers, and carpenters and joiners

331

Technicians and trades workers

296

181

Glaziers, plasterers and tilers

333

Technicians and trades workers

287

68

Prison and security officers

442

Community and personal services workers

275

80

Storepersons

741

Machinery operators and drivers

267

317

Food process workers

831

Labourers

255

260

Horticultural trades workers

362

Technicians and trades workers

244

96

Mobile plant operators

721

Machinery operators and drivers

242

206

Defence force members, fire fighters and police

441

Community and personal services workers

225

103

Delivery drivers

732

Machinery operators and drivers

209

76

It is interesting to note that, while serious claims represent 38 per cent of all finalised on-duty at place of work claims for all occupations, this percentage drops to 34 per cent for Technicians and trades workers’ claims. The highest conversion rates to serious claims were 44 per cent and 43 per cent respectively for Community and personal services workers and Machinery operators and drivers. Labourers’ proportion of serious claims was 39 per cent.

Sources: Queensland Employee Injury Database (QEIDB) (data extracted January 2018) and ABS, Censuses 2011 and 2016.

Appendix 1

Heat map – Finalised claims (excluding on-duty road traffic and commuting claims)

Legend

Index value:
> 200  
101-200 
0-100 

Index valuesClaim numbers
 Census year3 year average
Occupation2016201120162011
     

Accommodation and hospitality managers

41

27

52

66

Accountants, auditors and company secretaries

4

1

8

11

Accounting clerks and bookkeepers

18

6

48

45

Advertising, public relations and sales managers

32

21

33

50

Agricultural, medical and science technicians

44

48

44

67

Air and marine transport professionals

121

50

14

23

Animal attendants and trainers, and shearers

146

185

113

114

Architects, designers, planners and surveyors

18

5

20

21

Arts professionals

137

97

43

49

Automobile, bus and rail drivers

131

116

117

137

Automotive electricians and mechanics

136

136

436

518

Bricklayers, and carpenters and joiners

296

394

456

654

Building and engineering technicians

67

47

93

139

Business administration managers

15

14

19

31

Business and systems analysts, and programmers

4

3

1

4

Call or contact centre information clerks

16

23

21

45

Checkout operators and office cashiers

22

111

59

617

Chief executives, general managers and legislators

50

27

54

65

Child carers

53

47

253

253

Cleaners and laundry workers

123

137

626

832

Clerical and office support workers

46

29

47

59

Construction and mining labourers

331

419

719

935

Construction, distribution and production managers

27

32

106

176

Contract, program and project administrators

7

8

15

18

Database and systems administrators, and ICT security specialists

5

13

2

4

Defence force members, fire fighters and police

219

115

325

325

Delivery drivers

198

218

155

170

Education aides

44

39

239

246

Education, health and welfare services managers

28

28

45

47

Electricians

152

121

265

367

Electronics and telecommunications trades workers

103

83

123

192

Engineering professionals

48

98

56

105

Fabrication engineering trades workers

334

250

798

1435

Farm, forestry and garden workers

159

187

334

370

Farmers and farm managers

39

74

54

104

Financial and insurance clerks

21

26

28

41

Financial brokers and dealers, and investment advisers

1

1

3

5

Floor finishers and painting trades workers

192

269

70

103

Food preparation assistants

48

53

296

407

Food process workers

260

420

661

1,530

Food trades workers

102

92

419

556

Freight handlers and shelf fillers

34

79

86

121

General clerks

60

48

252

381

Glaziers, plasterers and tilers

270

352

166

210

Hairdressers

26

24

21

24

Health and welfare support workers

176

200

408

566

Health diagnostic and promotion professionals

39

25

39

56

Health therapy professionals

7

12

19

21

Horticultural trades workers

228

171

192

305

Hospitality workers

30

47

289

443

Human resource and training professionals

57

8

15

32

ICT and telecommunications technicians

28

28

14

15

ICT managers

8

7

1

3

ICT network and support professionals

10

4

4

3

Information and organisation professionals

39

18

28

34

Insurance agents and sales representatives

45

39

66

110

Keyboard operators

23

12

10

15

Legal professionals

4

10

5

4

Logistics clerks

48

46

103

182

Machine operators

123

173

183

360

Mechanical engineering trades workers

155

144

368

643

Media professionals

15

19

8

17

Medical practitioners

18

15

23

28

Midwifery and nursing professionals

48

46

257

320

Miscellaneous clerical and administrative workers

33

42

68

93

Miscellaneous education professionals

23

8

21

15

Miscellaneous factory process workers

502

592

615

1086

Miscellaneous hospitality, retail and service managers

48

43

98

140

Miscellaneous labourers

1077

651

2509

2424

Miscellaneous sales support workers

25

56

26

109

Miscellaneous specialist managers

69

70

63

105

Miscellaneous technicians and trades workers

154

122

169

214

Mobile plant operators

246

255

492

635

Natural and physical science professionals

31

40

61

84

Office and practice managers

12

13

23

37

Packers and product assemblers

45

106

130

425

Panelbeaters, and vehicle body builders, trimmers and painters

118

89

103

147

Personal assistants and secretaries

10

14

19

32

Personal carers and assistants

84

99

554

693

Personal service and travel workers

26

20

27

35

Plumbers

152

177

152

211

Printing trades workers

90

83

27

43

Prison and security officers

259

268

168

214

Real estate sales agents

11

17

21

26

Receptionists

9

15

37

63

Retail managers

19

17

59

111

Sales assistants and salespersons

57

37

1107

982

Sales, marketing and public relations professionals

11

15

20

33

School teachers

56

51

626

629

Social and welfare professionals

46

34

50

73

Sports and fitness workers

135

137

101

140

Stationary plant operators

180

234

196

345

Storepersons

275

297

933

1238

Tertiary education teachers

10

17

18

32

Textile, clothing and footwear trades workers

70

52

10

21

Truck drivers

323

280

660

805

Wood trades workers

164

149

120

150

Appendix 2

Serious claims, excluding road traffic incidents

Legend

Index value:
> 200  
101-200 
0-100 

Index valuesClaim numbers
 Census year3 year average
Occupation2016201120162011
     

Accommodation and hospitality managers

42

28

23

25

Accountants, auditors and company secretaries

3

1

4

3

Accounting clerks and bookkeepers

19

3

19

12

Advertising, public relations and sales managers

33

20

12

15

Agricultural, medical and science technicians

41

48

17

21

Air and marine transport professionals

77

38

6

9

Animal attendants and trainers, and shearers

150

192

41

39

Architects, designers, planners and surveyors

17

4

6

4

Arts professionals

119

97

12

11

Automobile, bus and rail drivers

137

120

60

66

Automotive electricians and mechanics

133

136

126

131

Bricklayers, and carpenters and joiners

296

421

181

245

Building and engineering technicians

69

47

29

44

Business administration managers

15

12

6

7

Business and systems analysts, and programmers

4

3

0

1

Call or contact centre information clerks

17

24

11

17

Checkout operators and office cashiers

22

101

21

180

Chief executives, general managers and legislators

52

25

19

16

Child carers

54

47

110

102

Cleaners and laundry workers

132

146

348

403

Clerical and office support workers

48

31

23

25

Construction and mining labourers

329

428

290

343

Construction, distribution and production managers

25

31

30

46

Contract, program and project administrators

7

7

7

5

Database and systems administrators, and ICT security specialists

2

3

0

1

Defence force members, fire fighters and police

225

114

103

77

Delivery drivers

209

230

76

81

Education aides

43

37

82

70

Education, health and welfare services managers

27

28

18

13

Electricians

158

123

90

86

Electronics and telecommunications trades workers

107

83

46

47

Engineering professionals

47

86

18

31

Fabrication engineering trades workers

319

231

193

261

Farm, forestry and garden workers

170

191

161

180

Farmers and farm managers

39

79

25

59

Financial and insurance clerks

19

25

8

18

Financial brokers and dealers, and investment advisers

0

0

0

0

Floor finishers and painting trades workers

173

296

38

44

Food preparation assistants

48

54

118

147

Food process workers

255

396

260

476

Food trades workers

104

91

173

174

Freight handlers and shelf fillers

33

86

35

51

General clerks

61

47

93

116

Glaziers, plasterers and tilers

287

342

68

76

Hairdressers

28

26

12

13

Health and welfare support workers

187

212

196

248

Health diagnostic and promotion professionals

40

25

17

19

Health therapy professionals

7

12

7

6

Horticultural trades workers

244

177

96

117

Hospitality workers

30

48

113

155

Human resource and training professionals

62

6

9

6

ICT and telecommunications technicians

29

30

4

6

ICT managers

9

7

0

1

ICT network and support professionals

11

2

1

1

Information and organisation professionals

41

18

9

12

Insurance agents and sales representatives

46

40

29

42

Keyboard operators

25

12

5

5

Legal professionals

2

11

1

1

Logistics clerks

48

44

37

57

Machine operators

125

177

60

100

Mechanical engineering trades workers

146

139

97

140

Media professionals

11

19

2

4

Medical practitioners

17

15

7

11

Midwifery and nursing professionals

50

49

116

133

Miscellaneous clerical and administrative workers

32

43

26

28

Miscellaneous education professionals

21

6

6

3

Miscellaneous factory process workers

501

575

164

267

Miscellaneous hospitality, retail and service managers

48

42

37

48

Miscellaneous labourers

1,075

647

889

750

Miscellaneous sales support workers

25

55

8

30

Miscellaneous specialist managers

67

64

21

25

Miscellaneous technicians and trades workers

122

120

48

56

Mobile plant operators

242

245

206

251

Natural and physical science professionals

31

39

18

22

Office and practice managers

13

14

9

14

Packers and product assemblers

44

102

46

128

Panelbeaters, and vehicle body builders, trimmers and painters

115

85

27

28

Personal assistants and secretaries

10

14

6

11

Personal carers and assistants

88

107

292

350

Personal service and travel workers

28

21

14

14

Plumbers

156

184

53

63

Printing trades workers

95

82

13

11

Prison and security officers

275

274

80

99

Real estate sales agents

10

19

9

9

Receptionists

9

14

14

21

Retail managers

19

17

26

38

Sales assistants and salespersons

55

36

411

306

Sales, marketing and public relations professionals

12

13

8

9

School teachers

55

46

199

175

Social and welfare professionals

50

36

25

27

Sports and fitness workers

138

138

55

54

Stationary plant operators

171

220

69

95

Storepersons

267

288

317

365

Tertiary education teachers

9

16

6

8

Textile, clothing and footwear trades workers

70

55

3

7

Truck drivers

349

304

383

417

Wood trades workers

172

159

45

55